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Hysteroscopy’s use and Indications: Diagnostics in Infertility and more

It has been more than a century now since the first hysteroscopy was performed. Diagnostic hysteroscopy is one of the best ways to inspect a women’s endometrial cavity and the lining of the uterus to detect any abnormalities.

Diagnostic Hysteroscopy is a gynecological procedure performed using a hysteroscope.  A hysteroscope is a narrow telescope consisting of light and a camera at its ends to examine the endometrial cavity and its lining.

Diagnostic Hysteroscopy helps to diagnose abnormalities that may be the potential reasons for women’s infertility, endometriosis, uterine fibroids and polyps, and other related gynecological disorders. Primarily, hysteroscopy is performed to diagnose issues in the uterus contributing to infertility.

The procedure starts with giving general anesthesia to the patient. The hysteroscope is then inserted in the vagina and is moved all the way to the uterus. This is followed by inserting a gas or liquid solution of carbon dioxide gas into the uterus. Carbon dioxide is inserted to clean up any blood or mucus inside.

WHO also recommends all infertile women undergo uterine cavity evaluation to properly understand the potential reasons for infertility. Hysteroscopy having proven results and being time-tested is the number 1 option to evaluate the endometrial cavity including the uterus.

Diagnostic hysteroscopy sets the pathway for the surgery performed during operative hysteroscopy. Intrauterine changes such as adhesions, polyps, submucous myomas, and other abnormalities are accurately detected by hysteroscopy. 

There is another procedure to diagnose infertility and that is called Hysterosalpingography. This performs the same task as hysteroscopy but with lesser accuracy. WHO recommends HSG to women having intrauterine issues, but hysteroscopy has proved to be more accurate and safe in this context.

Apart from HSG, there are several other procedures to evaluate the uterine cavity. These include ultrasound, Sonohysterography, dilation and curettage, MRI, laparoscopy, etc. Today, more than half of infertility diagnosis is performed by hysteroscopy. 

Hysteroscopys is recommended in the post-menstrual proliferative phase. The procedure can be performed in the office, clinic, hospital, or where the patient feels comfortable. It all depends upon the availability of instruments and surgical plans.

Most endometrial cavity evaluation procedures come with risks and so does hysteroscopys

. Hysteroscopys is generally safe to perform. Only 1-3 out of 100 patients may face some kind of complication. These complications include 

  • Tubal Obstruction
  • Intrauterine scars
  • Bleeding
  • Reaction to anesthesia or distention solution
  • Cervical Laceration and Uterine Perforation

Diagnostic hysteroscopy plays a vital role in identifying the potential causes of infertility. It has a supplementary role for operative hysteroscopys which treats the abnormalities causing infertility. 

Read Also : Termination Of Pregnancy – What Terminates Pregnancy?


Hysteroscopys is one of the doctor’s go-to procedures to evaluate the endometrial cavity, uterus, and surrounding organs to understand the cause of infertility in females. There is some risk attached to the procedure but very few experience it.


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